Two Minutes Twitter Hate [...]

Hating people on the Internet and destroying their lives is fun and exciting, especially as a group. The consequences are often dismissed as the targets are seen as racist or insensitive, and getting what they deserve. Two Minutes Twitter Hate is a version of Two Minutes Hate where a given person is chosen by a Twitter sub-community for outrage and ridicule.

In a December 2014 post, Sam Biddle talks about his part in one such Hate, the #HasJustineLandedYet Hate of 2013. (post)

Some of them were pernicious, some were stupid. Each time, each slap, was the same: If we could only put one more wrongheaded head on a pike, humiliate one more bigoted sorority girl or ignorant Floridian, we could heal this world. Each, next outrage post was the one that would make a difference….Twitter is a fast machine that almost begs for misunderstanding and misconstrual—deliberate misreading is its lubricant. The same flatness of affect that can make it such a weird and funny place also makes it a tricky and dangerous one. Jokes are complicated, context is hard. Rage is easy

….

But in 2014 context means basically nil, anyway. Every time I say something online, there’s a significant chance it will either be interpreted by committee on Twitter, or stumbled over by post-lobotomy brand managers. If, instead of making a facetious statement about bullying, I’d said “Gamergate is a group of shit people,” they would’ve claimed I was making light of feces-borne illness fatalities. Does Adobe stand against dysentery?

Tressie McMIllan Cottom, who refers to social media shaming events as “draggings”, points out that while such actions are often unfair to the individuals singled out, the experience of being singled out as an example of your race is normal for those with race — to some extent what is new is the privilege of the targets and the availability of the mic.(post)


A lot of times we feel justified in doing such things because of our sense of moral superiority. See What They Deserve.

It’s worth noting that many women and minorities on the Internet are harassed and threatened daily. See Woman with Opinion

Source: Two Minutes Twitter Hate

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From Status to Conversation [...]

Early on Twitter was seen as a status sharing service by lots of users. But if early employee Noah Glass is to be believed, it was, from the very beginning, also meant to be about conversation.

“All is Fair in Love and Twitter” narrates the early conversation between Glass and Jack Dorsey that would lead to the creation of Twitter:

As he listened to Dorsey talk, Glass would later recall, he stared out the window, thinking about his failing marriage and how alone he felt. Then he had an epiphany. This status thing wasn’t just about sharing what kind of music you were listening to or where you were, he thought. It could be a conversation. It wasn’t about reporting; it was about connecting. There could be a real business in that. He would certainly like such a service: his nights alone in his apartment, alone in his office, alone in his car, could feel less alone with a steady stream of conversation percolating online. The two brainstormed for a while longer, and as Dorsey staggered out of the car to go home, Glass said, “Let’s talk to Ev and the others about it tomorrow.” (post)


Conversation brings its own problems. See Streams Don’t Merge

Of course, with conversation comes the Two Minutes Twitter Hate.

Source: From Status to Conversation

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Preference for Female Voices [...]

The preference for female voices in our machines (Siri, Cortana, Echo) comes as much (or more) from women as men.

MacDorman should know. He and fellow researchers played clips of male and female voices to people of both genders, then asked them to identify which they preferred. The researchers also measured the way participants actually responded to the voices. In a 2011 paper, they reported that both women and men said female voices came across as warmer. In practice, women even showed a subconsciouspreference for responding to females; men remained subconsciously neutral. “Men will say they prefer female speech, and women really do prefer it,” MacDorman says. (post)

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Readings: Comparing Cranial Size (from Cranioklepty) [...]

Measurement has a fraught history, and it is useful to examine the ways in which measurement can be perverted by conscious and unconscious bias.

This reading activity asks students to look at the history of racist conclusions about brain size and determine the source of bias (measurement bias, selection bias, etc).

Read the reading from Cranioklepty, by Colin Dickey, and then answer the questions that follow.

Morton’s findings, published in his Crania Americana (1839) and Crania Aegyptiaca (1844), were enormously influential in appearing to demonstrate, by means of his system, that there was a clear hierarchy in brain size between different peoples. At the top of his scheme was the European, followed by the American Indian, and then the African, just one short step above the ape. Morton’s findings seemed to show, through the cold, objective truth of math and statistics, that the European brain was conclusively larger than that of other ethnic groups.

But there are lies, damned lies, and then there are statistics. In his book The Mismeasure of Man, Stephen Jay Gould cited the numerous methodological errors that Morton made in his calculations. For one, he failed to account for differences in sex and body size when calculating brain volume. He tended to include small-bodied Incas in his American Indian sample so as to bring down that average but excluded small-bodied Hindus from his Caucasian sample so as to keep that number higher. His a priori assumptions repeatedly led him to false conclusions— demonstrably false from his own data. On top of this, Morton made elementary computational and methodological errors, all of which coincidentally favored his preexisting beliefs and assumptions.

And yet, Gould concluded, “through all this juggling, I detect no sign of fraud or conscious manipulation. Morton made no attempt to cover his tracks and I must presume that he was unaware he had left them. He explained all his procedures and published all his raw data. All I can discern is an a priori conviction about racial ranking so powerful that it directed his tabulations along preestablished lines.” This in and of itself might not be so lamentable, Gould noted, if Morton hadn’t been “widely hailed as the objectivist of his age, the man who would rescue American science from the mire of unsupported speculation.”


Some questions:

  1. In what ways were the skulls chosen by Morton not representative?

  2. What did Morton not account for in his measurements?

  3. What sort of bias was Morton prone to?

  4. What does this story tell us about bias in measurement?

Students may want to consult Types of Bias in Statistics to answer questions three and four.

This is part of a larger series on Statistical Literacy.

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Our Warming Land and Ocean (1880-2015) [...]

A look at our warming land and ocean through NOAA compiled data. Global warming has some statistical noise but is very real. You can create your own graph at the NOAA site. (Link)

global land and ocean temp anomalies, 1880-2015

Download a csv. (csv)

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Script Theory [...]

The Script Theory of Schank and Abelson was an attempt, in large part, to explain why computers were so bad at basic comprehension of text. While some cognitive theorists hypothesized that computers needed a more subtle understanding of language, Schank and Abelson went the opposite direction: machines were lousy at language because they lacked an understanding of the “scripts” that make up daily existence.

Restaurant Script Image
A restaurant script broken into action “primitives” from Schank and Abelson 1975.

The classic example is the “restaurant” script. You start to tell someone “So I went to a restaurant, and the waitress is bringing me dessert…” What does a normal person intuit?

The assumption is that you came an were seated, have eaten a meal and now are having dessert. The story you tell only deals with deviations from the known script.

A computer on the other hand is likely to look at the article “the” in front of “waitress” and wonder where the heck this waitress came from and why you are not calling her “a” waitress when you haven’t introduced her to the story yet.

Schank and Abelson built a language of semantic primitives that could represent most common scripts and help computers with linguistic interpretation.

Script Theory is related to Minsky’s Frame Theory, but script theory is more specifically focused on the discovery and encoding of cultural scripts. (correct???)


The original paper (pdf)

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The Federated Library Project [...]

What is the federated library project?

It’s an attempt to build a library of resources which document our community knowledge and process of learning.

Like Wikipedia?

Yeah, sort of. Like a Shadow Wikipedia in some ways, built on different principles, but complementing Wikipedia nicely.

On Wikipedia people spend a lot of time debating over what the perfect page looks like, and what deserves to be a page. And this debate produces an excellent resource. We love Wikipedia!

But that debate also limits what you can do on Wikipedia. Some examples:

  • Maybe you just learned an interesting fact about how Daniel Lanois got that great reverb on the Dylan track “Man in the Long Black Coat”. You could go to Wikipedia and argue whether this detail is trivial or important enough to be on the Oh Mercy album page, but prepare to be there awhile.
  • Maybe your class just got some great data from some water tests you did in the local community. But there really isn’t a page for “Average Hard Metal Content of Camas WA Water”, so where do you put that?
  • Maybe you’re learning physics, and you’d like to write up a short summary of Newton’s Second Law to help your own understanding. But Wikipedia has practically finished that page — you can’t add to it. Or maybe you’d like your students to do this, but again, they can’t on Wikipedia.
  • Maybe you just learned about the Wow So Portland! twitter bot, and you want to write it up as an example of algorithmic art. But Wikipedia doesn’t consider the page notable.

Up to now there were really two choices. You could work on a consensus space like Wikipedia (which doesn’t work for reasons outlined above). Or you could build a class or personal site all on your own.

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Art -isms [...]

Art movements are the core of most art history courses and play a role in many appreciation curricula as well. This video by Nicole Caulfield (an art teacher) and her daughter Lizzy introduces grade school and middle school students to the idea of art movements.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z9Fy9GTXRRchttp://

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The User Is the Group [...]

Many decisions in social software production and administration degrade the experience of the individual in the interest of producing healthy group dynamics. Clay Shirky explains why this is a good thing in Own Worst Enemy:

Now, this pulls against the cardinal virtue of ease of use. But ease of use is wrong. Ease of use is the wrong way to look at the situation, because you’ve got the Necker cube flipped in the wrong direction. The user of social software is the group, not the individual. — Shirky, in Own Worst Enemy.

via The User Is the Group.


Shirky’s Own Worst Enemy is a classic in the theorizing of online activity.

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Perverse Incentives [...]

Perverse incentives are those incentives within behaviour modification strategies that operate rationally and in so doing produce the opposite of the intended outcome.

A bounty for rats can lead to an increase in the rat population. (CC0)
A bounty for rats can lead to an increase in the rat population. (CC0)

The classic example given in economic literature is the Rat Bounty of 19th century Hanoi. This resulted in the creation of rat farms by peasants who bred rats in order to turn in rat bodies to collect the bounty designed to reduce the rat population. In other words, the rat bounty increased rather than decreased the rat problem.

An example in higher education is the creation of global research ranking audit schemes that concretely reduce the amount of time available to researchers to undertake actual research.


A Freaknomics podcast covers the Hanoi Rat Bounty and examples of perverse incentives. (podcast)

The description of the Hanoi Rat Massacre comes from Of Rats, Rice, and Race. See Hanoi Rat Massacre

One type of perverse incentive is Penalty Compression.

Source: perverse incentives

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Broken Windows Theory Broken [...]

The broken windows theory is a sociological explanation of how “good” areas go “bad” and how bad areas go good. In the theory, tolerance of small offenses (such vandalism) leads to increases in larger offenses (such as murder). Application of policies informed by the theory were credited for New York City’s decline in crime in the 1990’s. However, there are many reasons to doubt this explanation.

The biggest reason to doubt that New York’s crackdown on smaller offenses led to reduced crime over the 1990s is that crime in America fell everywhere, whether “Broken Windows” policies were enforced or not.

While New York may have had a greater reduction in crime than other cities, the minimal differences can be explained as regression to the mean — essentially the areas that had the highest escalation of crime in the 1970s and 1980s experienced the greatest declines as crime reverted to its historical trend. Harcourt and Ludwig show that this mean regression can account for almost all of the New York City decline. (html)

Homicide Chart
Homicide dropped precipitously all over the country in the 1990s, not just in New York City. (source)

A second area of concern is that it is unclear if what is really be observed in the “broken windows” correlation is influence of a third factor: economics. It’s possible that saying communities that have more broken windows have more murder is simply equivalent to saying “poor areas have higher homicide rates”.

Over the past two decades, criminologists have largely come to see the broken windows effect as minor at best and harmful at worst.

Summarizing the research in 2004, David Thacher concluded:

Over the past few years, however, social science has not been kind to the broken windows theory. A number of scholars reanalyzed the initial studies that appeared to support it, arguing in particular that Wesley Skogan’s seminal study of the relationship between disorder and crime did not demonstrate the strong relationship that broken window proponents have claimed. Others pressed forward with new, more sophisticated studies of the relationship between disorder and crime. The most prominent among them concluded that the relationship between disorder and serious crime is modest, and even that relationship is largely an artifact of more fundamental social forces. (pdf)


Another line of thought is making small offenses capital crimes backfires. See Penalty Compression.

Broken Windows Theory brought in Compstat which created Perverse Incentives.

Source: Broken Windows Theory Broken

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A Tree That Falls [...]

“The media only writes about the sinners and the scandals, but that’s normal, because a tree that falls makes more noise than a forest that grows.” – Pope Francis

Stream technologies are great at letting you know about falling trees. Garden technologies let you explore the forest.


The Web took an early turn to tree-that-falls-ism. See Facebook Mini-Feed, Lifestream History

A scary thought: what if the drama of tree-that-falls-ism is necessary to modern engagement? See Civility’s Curse

Source: A Tree That Falls

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Inhospitable Writing [...]

Much web writing is “inhospitable to strangers”: it uses text to build a conversational in-group, making it clear to outsiders that they are not a part of the conversation. Here’s an example of inhospitable writing:

Guns and Speech Commodity Activism, A Blog Post

Picking up on Josh’s “quick think” on notions of an activism of symbols, a couple of things come to mind (imagine that, right? Me on a tangent!). First of all, as Jane mentioned, all things are not equal: sometimes words really do hurt. More importantly, the gun divide in our country makes action impossible, This leads to something similar to the Commodity Activism that I’ve mentioned here before. When you can’t take action on an issue, you crave ways to signal concern. Why wouldn’t you?

How’d that make you feel reading that? Did you feel invited in? Or did you feel left out?

Who is “Josh”? Who’s “Jane”?

Why is the phrase “quick think” linked and quoted? Is that an inside joke I don’t know about? Who is this “me” and why is it funny they are on a tangent? Is this “things are not equal” post important? What’s not equal? Am I supposed to have read these previous posts first?

If you blog, you probably think that your posts don’t read like this. And they probably don’t to your friends. But to strangers they feel like this. And to students the papers and posts you assign may feel like this as well.

Posts like this build a community, and use links and references to other conversations to strengthen that community. They build friendships, and friendships are important. They feel good to people in the community. But it comes at a price to outsiders.


These techniques come over from Usenet and BBS culture. See Before Posting to NetNews

.

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Oracle’s Primary School [...]

Oracle is opening a charter school, in what seems to be emerging as a Silicon Valley trend of late 2015.

During Oracle OpenWorld, CEO Safra Catz confirmed that the company will open d.tech on its Redwood City campus. Set to be completed in the fall of 2017, it is described as a “64,000-square-foot, state-of-the-art, LEED-certified school” enrolling 550 students in the ninth and tenth grades upon opening. In addition to donating the land, Oracle will pay to build the facility.

Previously both Mark Zuckerberg of Facebook and Sal Khan of Khan Academy had opened schools. The play here is a bit different in focus though — the school is meant to serve low income families and takes the long-standing recommendation that schools become hubs for other social services to heart:

Called The Primary School, the campus is expected to open in August 2016 in close to the Facebook (NASDAQ: FB) campus in Menlo Park. The school is recruiting families from the nearby low-income communities of East Palo Alto and Menlo Park’s Belle Haven and will offer health care along with instruction.

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The Policeman’s Beard Is Half-Constructed [...]

Book cover
Book cover

Book of prose and poetry completely written by a computer, using the Racter program. It was an early example of computer generated poetry and prose and claims to be the first computer-generated book.

It appears to have used more of a “mad libs” approach to text production than other approaches. (wikipedia)

The book is freely available as a pdf. (pdf)

Some selections from the work below, including the beautiful illustrations by Joan Hall.

“Helene spies herself in the enthralling conic-section yet she is but an enrapturing reflection of Bill. His consciousness contains a mirror, a sphere in which to unfortunately see Helene. She adorns her soul with desire while he watches her and widens his thinking about enthralling love. Such are their reflections. “

“Many enraged psychiatrists are inciting a weary butcher. The butcher is weary and tired because he has cut meat and steak and lamb for hours and weeks. He does not desire to chant about anything with raving psychiatrists but he sings about his gingivectomist, he dreams about a single cosmologist, he thinks about his dog. The dog is named Herbert.”

Sample page layout:
Sample page layout: “Can maids know galaxies and even stars…”


Joan Hall is still a working artist and has a site for those interested in her art. (site)

The question of whether algorithms can be art is well-studied. See Computational Creativity

Some of these illustrations are reminiscent of the graphic novel Asterios Polyp

The text often resembles Markov chain text, like that found at this Darwin/Cormac McCarthy experiment. (Link)

Newer methods of computer writing are more sophisticated. See Philip Parker.

via The Policeman’s Beard is Half Constructed.

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Alarm Fatigue [...]

Hospitals are overwhelmed with alarms, and it’s a problem with severe consequences:

Current clinical alarm technology is generally based on Data Threshold Science, which detects when a specific data threshold has been crossed and activates an alerting mechanism (usually an audible alarm). Unfortunately, this creates a concept known as “alarm fatigue,” which has truly frightening consequences when encountered in complex clinical environments. In such environments, critical alarms are often either ignored or even turned off. (html)

The results, predictably, are injury and death.

Some causes of alarm fatigue include:

  • False Alarms, which “cry wolf” and add noise to the system.
  • Notification Wars, where every device must compete with the others for competition.
  • The sheer number of alarm conditions. In an ICU the average number of alarm conditions per day for a single bed was 771.

Tea Kettle Tech minimizes alarms by only giving alerts when action is required.

In Sonification data is converted to an “auditory display” which can reduce fatigue.

A note about Alarms in Chemotherapy Centers

Alarm Fatigue is an issue in Normal Accident Theory.

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Stravinsky’s Player Piano [...]

download (7)

Stravinsky, like many artists of his time, saw in mechanical reproduction of performance a way to ensure fidelity to the original artistic vision. Hedy’s Folly records his initial reaction to the player piano (and later, the gramaphone):

Pleyel had contacted Stravinsky in 1921 to propose that he transcribe his works for the Pleyela reproducing piano. The company offered him use of a suite of rooms in its building in Paris and technical support. He quickly decided to accept the offer, he wrote, for two reasons:

“In order to prevent the distortion of my compositions by future interpreters, I had always been anxious to find a means of imposing some restriction on the notorious liberty…which prevents the public from obtaining a correct idea of the author’s intentions. This possibility was now afforded by the rolls of the mechanical piano, and a little later, by gramaphone records.” — Hedy’s Folly by Richard Rhodes (amazon)

It is strange to think it, but until very modern times composers and playwrights had no way to “fix” the interpretation of their work, to prevent its inevitable drift as interpretations of interpretations changed its nature over time. The ability of reproduction technology to control such interpretation was among the very first benefits seen by composers. (Debussy and Gershwin had similar reactions). Mechanical reproduction has always been partly about control.


See also Jacquard Loom for an early example of mechanization by recipe.

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NaNoGenMo [...]

National Novel Generation Month (html)

“Hey, who wants to join me in NaNoGenMo: spend the month writing code that generates a 50k word novel, share the novel & the code at the end” (tweet)

Completed works from 2014 (html)

via wiki.matts.wiki

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Basics of ASCII Art [...]

ASCII art is a form of art which uses characters as its basic unit of construction. It is an extension of Typewriter Art, which appeared shortly after the invention of the typewriter.

ASCII art generators take text and create ASCII art algorithmically. (html)

In the 1970s and 80s, large banners were often produced as ASCII art.

ASCII art remains a staple of certain online cultures, such as some Twitter communities. Shruggie and Sign Bunny are two common examples of ASCII art found on Twitter.

The subreddit r/ASCII collects examples of ASCII art.

Modern ASCII art may contain Unicode Characters far beyond the 128 characters in standard ASCII.

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AARON [...]

AARON is a software program written by artist Harold Cohen that creates original artistic images.

Cohen is very careful not to claim that AARON is creative. But he does ask “If what AARON is making is not art, what is it exactly, and in what ways, other than its origin, does it differ from the ‘real thing?’ If it is not thinking, what exactly is it doing?” (wikipedia)

via wiki.matts.wiki

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Creative Nights [...]

Creative Nights

Fatigue may boost creativity. From the WSJ:

Surprisingly, fatigue may boost creative powers. For most adults, problems that require open-ended thinking are often best tackled in the evening when they are tired, according to a 2011 study in the journal Thinking & Reasoning. When 428 students were asked to solve a series of two types of problems, requiring either analytical or novel thinking, their performance on the second type was best at non-peak times of day when they were tired, according to the study led by Mareike Wieth, an assistant professor of psychological sciences at Albion College in Michigan. (Their performance on analytical problems didn’t change over the course of the day.) Fatigue, Dr. Wieth says, may allow the mind to wander more freely to explore alternative solutions. (wsj)

It’s a single study, of course.


This may argue against First Hours, Best Hours.

Circadian Typology may mean different people have different optimal times.

The study mentioned. Time of day effects on problem solving: When the non-optimal is optimal. (paid)

Another journal article, from Cognition. (paid)

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On Its Side [...]

Wasilly Kandinsky is seen as the first purely abstract artist in the modern meaning of the term. But as the the realization of the power of the pure abstract came about through accident.

A later Kandinsky: Circles in a Circle (1923). (source)
A later Kandinsky: Circles in a Circle (1923). (source)

Art by 1910 had been in an abstract mode for some time, with artists like Monet and Cezanne having paved the way. Initially Kandinsky was such a painter, painting street scenes in and other subjects in an impressionistic style.

Things changed for Kandinsky rather suddenly on a day in 1910:

In his memoirs Kandinsky recalls the day in 1910 when he accidentally discovered nonrepresentational art. As he returned home at sunset he was struck as he entered his studio by an “indescribably beautiful painting, all irradiated by an interior light.” He could distinguish only “forms and colors and no meaning.” He soon realized that it was one of his own paintings turned on its side. Soon after he began working on paintings that came to be considered the first totally abstract works in modern art; they made no reference to objects of the physical world and derived their inspiration and titles from music. (html)

download (2)
A Kandinsky from 1909, a year before the realization. (Murnau: Street with Horse-Drawn Carriage)

download (3)
A Kandinsky from 1911, a year after the realization. (Composition V)

.

There is coverage of Kandinsky elsewhere on wiki. See Circles in a Circle (1923)

Kandinsky is recognized as the first abstract artist, however it was discovered independently many places. See Hilma af Klint

For more on discovered art, from the perspective of a nine year-old, see Haiku by a Robot

via On Its Side.

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Objet Trouvé [...]

In the 1960s and 1970s art philosopher Arthur Danto wrote a series of articles examining the claim of found objects presented as art to be art rather than simply objects.

© 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris / Estate of Marcel Duchamp
© 2015 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York / ADAGP, Paris / Estate of Marcel Duchamp

From his 1974 article “The Transfiguration of the Commonplace”, “I think of the singular intoxication the first pop-art exhibits brought to spectators when they saw such crass objects as ironing boards and vacuum cleaners in a space where they no longer had any power over us, standing helpless and impotent like stranded sea monsters, in the neutralising space of the gallery.” link


Commodity Sculpture was a descendant of Objet Trouve popular in the 1980s

Found art comes in many forms. See Haiku by a Robot.

Sometimes found objects turn out to have be not-so-found. See Horse_ebooks

via Objet Trouve.

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Tuition Cost of Cornell [...]

Add this to the theory that most of what we are seeing in college cost is price discrimination. For most income brackets, tuition of Cornell is stable or lower than ten years ago.

CSXNLUcW0AAxU3V

One question here is whether the income brackets have been inflation adjusted as well (one assumes they have been). Another might be in the not-aided segment. Also, is Cornell need blind?

Source (pdf)

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Peer Instruction Activity: Genevieve’s Career Goals [...]

This peer instruction task tests student ability to guess the relative probability of co-occurring events. Surprisingly, many students fail to understand that co-occurring events always have a smaller probability than the two events do individually.


At a dinner party this weekend, a friend introduces you to a woman named Genevieve. He tells you that Genevieve recently graduated from Smith College with a B.A. in Philosophy, where she was active in the Occupy movement and edited a literary magazine. You’re interested in talking to Genevieve about Hegel, the subject of her senior thesis, but your friend jumps in and asks you to rank the following statements about Genevieve in order of their probability:

(1) Genevieve is a feminist.
(2) Genevieve is looking for a job as a sanitation worker.
(3) Genevieve is a feminist who is looking for a job as a sanitation worker.

Given what you know about Genevieve, rank the statements from most likely to least likely on your alphanumeric clicker as a single string. (e.g. ‘231’).

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Design Teams at Pearson [...]

Design teams at Pearson live over many releases, with a focus on Evergreen Content. They are always looking for new streams of research, events that give a lens onto the subject.

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Own Worst Enemy [...]

A “group is its own worst enemy”. — Clay Shirky. Justly famous post by Clay Shirky on the way groups work to defeat themselves. Some ideas from it are itemized below. post

We want to see the user of software as the individual, as we do with desktop apps, but, as Shirky notes, in social software The User Is the Group.

Cohen’s Law predicts unmoderated groups will spend increasing bandwidth arguing about moderation.

Soft-forking Groups like those on Twitter, LiveJournal, or Tumblr have blurry edges and respond well to scale.

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Minimal Grading [...]

Minimal grading is an approach by Peter Elbow to grading which does away with many increments.

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OER Criticism [...]

Elitism and OER

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Peter Elbow [...]

From Wikipedia:

Peter Elbow is a Professor of English Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, where he also directed the Writing Program from 1996 until 2000. He writes about theory, practice, and pedagogy, and has authored several books and a number of papers. His practices in regard to editing and revising are now widely accepted and taught as the writing process. The invention technique freewriting is dubbed as a “student-centered movement”.


Elbow supported a policy of Minimal Grading.

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